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Citation Guide


Introduction


MLA stands for the Modern Language Association. MLA is the organization responsible for creating the guidlines and rules set forth in the MLA Handbook. This handbook dictates how MLA citation format should be implemented in academic publications and research papers to properly format a paper and provide credit to the sources used in the creation of the work.

There are two parts to citing resources in MLA: intext citations and the Works Cited List. Watch the video below for an introduction to these components:


Recommended Resources

  • EVC Library MLA Handout
  • Purdue OWL. MLA Formatting and Style Guide: https://bit.ly/2JBgHg6
  • Modern Language Association of America. MLA Style Center: https://style.mla.org/

MLA Paper Formatting Rules:

  • Double space the text of your paper

  • Use legible font

  • Use 12 pt. font size

  • One space after periods

  • 1 inch margins on all sides

  • Include a header in the top right hand corner. It should contain your last name and the page no. of the paper.
     


In-Text Citations


In-text citations are the brief citations within your research paper that are placed after information which is quoted or paraphrased from the sources you use. In text citation for MLA generally requires two pieces of information:

  1. Author's last name
  2. The page number the information came from

The intext citation is often included at the end of a quote or paraphase and is formatted like this: (Author's Last Name p#).

However, the placement of the intext can change depending on whether or not you introduce the author before your quote or paraphrasing, but the same information for the citation is still required. See examples below.

Example of Parenthetical Citation

Eighty percent of children in the US eat grapes ‚Äč(Jenkins 3).

Example of Citation included in the Prose of the Paper:

Jenkins states, "In the United States, grapes are consumed by 80% of children" (3).

Use quotation marks to indicate that a statement is taken exactly as written or spoken by the author. If you choose to paraphrase, or summarize information from a text into your own words, do not use quotation marks. In both sitations, you need to include in text citation to indicated that the thoughts, ideas, arguments or research came from an outside source and is not your work.


In-text Citation Research Paper Sample

Garcia 2    

Animals’ Positive Effects on Happiness

        Humans and animals have coexisted for hundreds of generations. Evolution has changed most organisms over time, and in some cases, the relationship between man and beast became intertwined. As domestication occurred, animals began an even closer relationship with humans. It's hard to say when the first domestication took place, but ancient Egyptians used cats in fields and worshiped them as gods. “Animals and humans have existed in therapeutic relationships with each other for more than 12,000 years” (Morrison 51). In modern times, more than fifty percent of households have pets and reap the benefits of their company and companionship. Animals provide us with unconditional love, affection, and friendship, which brings humans ever closer to happiness and positive emotions. Therapy animals and pets in our daily lives can significantly increase our overall happiness and provide lasting health benefits. This is proved by the emotional and physiological changes observed in humans who interact with an animal. As Granda (2020) notes, this interrelationship has become even more clear during the recent pandemic where the surge in pet adoptions has soared.

        Roko Belic’s documentary Happy, discusses the human need for happiness. This broad concept is linked to positive psychology, which is the scientific study of characteristics that motivate humans to thrive and find positive emotions. Sonja Lyubomirsky, Ph.D., is a Professor of Psychology at US Riverside; she discusses this drive in the film Happy. She states that human happiness "can be attributed to 50% genetics, 10% life circumstances, and 40% intentional activity.

 

Note:

  • The Granada source is an online article that did not have page number, so none were included.
  • Happy is a film, so again no page numbers were included as the format does not warrant it.

Works Cited List


The last page of your essay is called the "Works Cited" list. This is where you list the full citation of the sources you used to write your paper. There are no strict rules defined by The MLA Handbook on formatting your citations. Rather, a universal set of guidelines has been developed to guide the creation of your citation. 

GENERAL CITATION FORMAT:

Author. "Title of Source". Title of Container, Other Contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location.


EXAMPLE CITAITON FOR A MAGAZINE ARTICLE:

Kunzig, Robert. "The New Europeans: Voices from a Changing Continent". National Geographic, vol. 258, no. 5, Nov. 2015, pp. 58-75.

For details on each category, view Creating a Works Cited list using the ninth edition from the Purdue OWL

 

Works Cited Page Sample

Garcia 10

Works Cited

Beetz, Andrea, et al. “Psychosocial and Psychophysiological Effects of Human-Animal Interactions: The Possible Role of Oxytocin.” Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 3, 2012, pp. 1-15. Frontiers doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00234

Happy. Directed by Roko Belic, Films Media Group, 2015.

Granda, Nancy. “Animal Shelters Across the State Seeing Increase in Adoptions During COVID-19 Outbreak.” ABC30 Fresno, 20 Apr. 2020, abc30.com/animals-animal-adoption-spca-california/6118/.

Hedin, Marin. “Therapy Dogs May Unlock Health Benefits for Patients in Hospital ICUs.” Hub, 3 Feb. 2018, jhu.edu/2018/02/12/therapy-dogs-could-help-icu-patients/?utm_source=Hub+-+v2+Synced+List

Morrison, Michele L. “Health Benefits of Animal-Assisted Interventions.” Complementary Health Practice Review, vol. 12, no. 1, 2007, pp. 51-62. Sage, doi.org/10.1177/1533210107302397.

 

MLA Works Cited Rules:

  • Include Works Cited page at the end of your paper on new page
  • Title the page: Works Cited
  • Double space all citations but do not include extra spacing between entries
  • Use hanging indent, which means indenting the second and subsequent lines of a citation by 0.5 inches
  • One space after all punctuation
  • One inch margins on all sides
  • Include header in the top right hand corner. It should contain your last name and the page# of the paper.
     

MLA Citation Formats and Examples by Source type

Please note that Works Cited pages require hanging indents for each citation.


Format:
Author Last name, First name. Title of Book: Subtitle. Edition (if applicable), Publisher, year. Database (if applicable), URL (if applicable). Accessed Date (if applicable).

Example (Print):
Burnett, Bill, and Dave Evans. Designing Your Life: How to Build a Well-Lived, Joyful Life. Knopf, 2016.

Example (eBook):  
Valdez, Luis, and Edna Ochoa. Zoot Suit. Arte Público Press, 1992.  eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&A. Accessed 20 July 2022.

Format:
Author Last name, First name. "Title of Part." Title of Book: Subtitle, edited by First Name Last Name, Publisher, year, page number(s). Database (if applicable), URL (if applicable). Accessed Date (if applicable).

Example:
McMillan, Terry. “The Way I See It.” Gumbo: A Celebration of African American Writing, edited by Marita Golden and E. Lynn Harris, Harlem Moon/Broadway Books, 2002, pp. 56-76.

Example (eBook):
“Wilde, Oscar.” Authors of the 19th Century, edited by Adam Augustyn, Britannica Educational Publishing, 2014, pp. 430-435. Gale EBooks, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3808200085/GVRL?u=san57663&sid. Accessed 27 July 2022.

Format:
Author Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine or Newspaper, vol. no., issue no., day Month year (of issue), page number(s). Database (if applicable). URL (if applicable). Accessed day month year (if applicable).

Magazine Example:
Aguilera, Jasmine, et al. “Nameless No Longer.” Time Magazine, vol. 199, no. 11/12, Mar. 2022, pp. 70–75. Academic Search Complete, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?a9h&. Accessed 25 Jul. 2022.

Newspaper Example:
Hayes, Rick. “Voting for Dollars.” New York Amsterdam News, vol. 110, no. 18, 8 May 2019, p. 12. Academic Search Complete, https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=a9h&. Accessed 25 Jul. 2022.

Format:
Author Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, vol. no., issue no, year, pages. Database (if applicable), DOI or URL (if applicable). Accessed Date (if applicable)

Example:
Yong, Caleb. “Justice in Labor Immigration Policy.” Social Theory & Practice, vol. 42, no. 4, Oct. 2016, pp. 817–844. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/24870305. Accessed 20 Jul. 2022.

Format:
Government. Government Agency. Title of Publication. Publisher, year. Congress Number, Session, Senate Report number (if applicable). Database (if applicable), URL (if applicable). Accessed date (if applicable).

Example:
United States. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. Kids and the Internet: The Promise and the Perils. Government Printing Office, 1999. govinfo.library.unt.edu/copacommission/papers/kidshear.pdf. 22 July 2022.

Format:
Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Page.” Title of Website, Website Publisher (if different than title of website), Creation date (if available), URL. Accessed Day Month Year.

Website with Author Example:
Warren, Tom. “Microsoft’s Surface PC Event: What to Expect.” The Verge, Vox Media, 24 Oct. 2016, www.theverge.com/2016/10/24/13379386/microsoft-surface-event-windows-10-devices-preview. Accessed 31 Oct. 2016.

Website without Author Example:
“Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 12 Sept. 2016, www.cdc.gov/flu/swineflu/h3n2v-cases.htm. Accessed 15 Oct. 2021.

Format:
Last name, First name of the creator. “Title of the film or video.” Title of the website, uploaded by, year, URL (if applicable). Accessed date.

Example:
“Do You Understand the Electoral College?” YouTube, uploaded by PragerU, 18 May 2015,
www.youtube.com/watch?v=V6s7jB6-GoU. Accessed 6 June 2022.

Example:
Cuddy, Amy. “Your Body Language Shapes Who You Are.” TED, June 2012, www.ted.com/talks/amy_cuddy_your_body_language_shapes_who_you_are. Accessed 6 June 2022.